The Eye

The Eye


Our eyes give us the sense of sight, allowing us to learn about our world more than we do with any of our other four senses. We use our eyes in almost every activity – reading, working, watching television, writing, driving a car, and many other activities need our sense of sight. Most people would agree that the sense of sight is the most precious of five senses, and many people fear blindness more than any other disability.

Through our eyes we can see and interpret shapes, colours and dimensions of objects in the world by processing the light they reflect or give off. The eye is able to see in dim light or bright light, but it cannot see an object when light is absent.

Anatomy Eye

How does the Human Eye Work?


Light from an object enters the eye first through the cornea and then through the pupil – the circular opening in the iris. Next, light is converged by the lens to a point immediately behind the lens; here the image becomes inverted. The light progresses through the gelatinous vitreous humour and back to a clear focus on the retina, the central area of which is called the macula. In the retina, light impulses are changed into electrical signals and then sent along the optic nerve and back to the occipital (posterior) lobe of the brain, which interprets these electrical signals as visual images.

In a normal eye, rays of light from an object are focused at a sharp point on the retina.

Eye Conditions

There are several eye diseases; most of them go undetected for long. You may not even notice a change in your ability to see objects clearly until it’s too late.

Types of Eye Conditions
  • Myopia
  • Hyperopia
  • Astigmatism
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Dry Eyes


Nearsightedness or myopia occurs when light entering the eye focuses in front of the retina instead of directly on it. This is because of a cornea that is steeper, or an eye that is longer, than a normal eye. Near-sighted people typically see well up close, but have difficulty seeing far away.

Nearsightedness is an inherited problem. School-age children are often the most affected by this. How many times have you heard a child complain about inability to see the chalkboard? Near-sightedness usually becomes progressively worse through adolescence and stabilizes in early adulthood.

Symptoms, Detection and Correction

Blurry distance vision seems clearer when squinting. Nearsightedness is detected with a vision test and refraction.

The treatment for nearsightedness depends on several factors such as the patient’s age, activities, and occupation. Nearsightedness can be corrected with glasses, contacts, or LASIK surgery.

At Banaji Eyecare, we perform LASIK Surgery to correct myopia. Refractive procedures such as LASIK can be considered for adults when the prescription has remained stable for at least one year. If you feel that you are a candidate for such treatment, and your prescription has remained stable for at least one year, contact Banaji Eyecare.



Farsightedness or hyperopia occurs when light entering the eye focuses behind the retina, instead of directly on it. This is caused by a cornea that is flatter, or an eye that is shorter, than a normal eye. Farsighted people usually have trouble seeing up close, but may also have difficulty seeing far away as well.

Young people with mild to moderate hyperopia are often able to see clearly because their natural lens can adjust to increase the eye’s focusing ability. However, as the eye gradually loses the ability to accommodate (beginning at about 40 years of age); blurred vision from hyperopia often becomes more apparent.

Symptoms, Detection and Correction

In hyperopia, there is difficulty in seeing up close, blurred distance vision, eye fatigue when reading, eye strain and crossed eyes in children. Hyperopia is detected with a vision test called refraction. Young patients’ eyes are dilated for this test so they are unable to mask their farsightedness with accommodation. This is called a CYCLOPLEGIC refraction.

Several factors such as age, activities, and occupation of patients, determine the route for their treatment. Depending on their ability to compensate for their farsightedness with accommodation, young patients may or may not require glasses or contact lenses. Whereas, glasses or contact lenses are required for older patients.

At Banaji Eyecare, refractive surgery is an option for adults who wish to see clearly without glasses. At our clinic, LASIK and clear lens replacement are all procedures that can be performed to correct hyperopia.

If you feel that you are a candidate for such treatment, contact Banaji Eyecare.



Astigmatism often occurs along with near-sightedness or farsightedness. It is a condition where the cornea is oval like a football instead of spherical, like a basketball. Most astigmatic corneas have two curves – a steeper curve and a flatter curve, which causes light to focus on more than one point in the eye, resulting in blurred vision, near or at a distance.

Symptoms, Detection and Correction

Blurred vision is a sign of astigmatism. Astigmatism can be detected and measured with corneal topography, keratometry, vision testing and refraction.

At Banaji Eyecare, eye condition like astigmatism can be corrected with glasses, contacts, or surgically. It can also be corrected by astigmatic keratotomy (procedures that involve placing a microscopic incision on the eye) and LASIK. The objective of these procedures is to reshape the cornea so it becomes more spherical or uniformly curved.

If you suffer from astigmatism, and would like to avail vision correction treatment for it, contact Banaji Eyecare.



Conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, is an infection of the conjunctiva. The three most common types of conjunctivitis are: viral, allergic, and bacterial. Each requires different treatments. With the exception of the allergic type, conjunctivitis is typically contagious.

The viral type is often associated with an upper respiratory tract infection, cold, or sore throat. The allergic type occurs more frequently among those with allergic conditions. When related to allergies, the symptoms are often seasonal. Allergic conjunctivitis may also be caused by intolerance to substances such as cosmetics, perfume, or drugs. Bacterial conjunctivitis is often caused by bacteria such as staphylococcus and streptococcus. The severity of the infection depends on the type of bacteria involved.

Symptoms, Detection and Correction

In viral conjunctivitis, the eyes are red and have a watery discharge, patients complain of irritation. This infection usually begins with one eye, but may spread easily to the fellow eye.

Allergic conjunctivitis, usually affects both eyes; it is followed by itching, tearing and swollen eyelids. In bacterial conjunctivitis, there is stringy discharge from the eye, which may cause the lids to stick together, especially after sleeping. Further, there is swelling of the conjunctiva, redness, tearing, irritation and/or a gritty feeling. It usually affects only one eye, but may spread easily to the fellow eye.

Conjunctivitis is diagnosed during a routine eye exam using a slit lamp microscope. In some cases, cultures are taken to determine the type of bacteria causing the infection. Conjunctivitis requires medical attention. The appropriate treatment depends on the cause of the problem.

To avoid spreading infection, take these simple steps:

  • Disinfect surfaces such as doorknobs and counters with diluted bleach solution
  • Don’t swim (some bacteria can be spread in the water)
  • Avoid touching the face
  • Wash hands frequently
  • Don’t share towels or washcloths
  • Do not reuse handkerchiefs (using a tissue is best)
  • Avoid shaking hands

If you feel that you are a candidate for such treatment, contact Banaji Eyecare immediately.

Age Related Macular Degeneration

Macular Degeneration

Certain conditions can affect the macula and in turn, one’s central vision. Probably the most common is “macular degeneration,” a hereditary ocular disease. Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. There are two types of macular degeneration, dry and wet. Dry macular degeneration is generally caused by a thinning of the macula’s layers, and gradual loss of vision. Whereas, wet macular degeneration can result when fragile blood vessels that develop underneath the macula, haemorrhage, and blood and other fluid,destroy the macular tissue, even causing scarring. In this case, vision loss can be rapid — over months or even weeks — as well as very devastating.

Symptoms, Detection and Correction

The earliest symptom of macular degeneration usually is persistently blurred vision. As more cells of the macula are destroyed, objects become distorted (for instance, straight lines become crooked). Eventually, a small blind spot in the central visual field can develop and grow in size. This can progress to the point of “doughnut” vision, where people’s faces are unrecognizable when looking directly at them, yet peripheral vision remains unaffected.

Macular tissue destroyed by either dry or wet macular degeneration cannot be repaired.

At Banaji Eyecare, we use the revolutionary new Anti-VEGF injections such as Lucentis – that are very effective in stopping the progress of wet macular degeneration. For early detection and cure for dry or wet macular degeneration, contact Banaji Eyecare.

Dry Eye

Dry Eyes

Dry Eye refers to a condition where there is lack of moisture in the eye. Whenever we blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye, making it smooth and clear. The tear film consists of three layers, an oily layer, watery layer and a layer of mucus. The oily layer, which forms the outermost surface of the tear film, is produced by the meibomian glands. The main purpose of this layer is to smooth the tear surface and reduce evaporation of tears.

To stay moist and comfortable, the eye produces tears in two different ways. To maintain normal eye lubrication, tears are produced at a steady rate. In case when a foreign object enters the eye or in response to emotion, excessive tearing occurs.

Symptoms, Detection and Correction

Insufficient moisture in the eyes because of poor quality or quantity of tears causes discomfort and irritation in the eyes. More often the tear film doesn’t spread sufficiently over the eye, and leads to lack of water in the eye, this is called dry eye.

To avoid dry eye while doing work on the computer, reading or other tasks, one should blink. A temporary relief from dry eye can be attained by using artificial tears. To promote healthy development of tears, omega-3 fatty acids can be added to your diet.

Schedule an appointment with Banaji Eyecare to seek treatment for Dry Eye.

Myth Busters

Like fables and legends of antiquity, myths about the human eye have been circulating for centuries. They are handed down from one generation to the next, until they pass into the realm of belief.

Help us spot some of the Myths here, take our ‘Eye-Q Test’.

eye - q - test

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Please complete answering all the questions on page 1-3 to complete the Eye-Q-Test

  • Reading in dim light will hurt your eyes. False

    Using your eyes in dim light does not damage them in any way. Not too long ago, reading and sewing was done by candlelight or with gas or kerosene lamps. However, good lighting makes reading easier and prevents fatigue.

  • Wearing the wrong kind of glasses hurts your eyes. False

    Glasses are simply visual aids to improve vision. Eyes are neither strengthened nor weakened by glasses. Going without glasses or with the wrong kind will not hurt your eyes. The only exception to the rule, is for children with crossed eyes (strabismus) or with lazy eyes (amblyopia), where glasses may strengthen the eye and preserve vision. However, it is advisable to have proper corrective glasses or contact lenses to provide optimum vision.

  • Using computers will not damage your eyes. True

    Prolonged periods of close work or reading may result in eye strain or fatigue. Taking a break or looking up or across the room at frequent intervals usually relieves the strain. If your vision blurs or your eyes tire easily, make an appointment with Banaji Eyecare immediately.

  • Children usually outgrow crossed eyes. False

    Real crossing of the eyes in children is not outgrown. A wide-bridged nose may cause the eyes to appear crossed - however, this can improve with age. To avoid seeing double, a child with crossed eyes will use only one eye at a time. The other, unused eye will never develop good vision, unless the child is forced to use it by patching the good eye. This defect may also be corrected by glasses, eye drops or surgery. Ideally, treatment at an early stage is preferred. If your child has crossed eyes, please make an appointment with Banaji Eyecare immediately.

  • Eye trouble is the cause of reading disability (dyslexia). False

    Dyslexia is a learning disorder. There is no scientific evidence to show that dyslexia is caused by eye trouble. Dyslexic children often need help from teachers and persons with special training in learning disabilities. Before such treatment is started, it is important for the child to undergo a complete medical eye examination to diagnose any correctable eye condition.

  • Sitting close to television can be normal. True

    Children have a greater ability to focus up close than adults. They often develop habits of holding reading material close to their eyes or sitting close to the television. This does not damage the eyes. The habits will change as the children grow older. Occasionally, myopic children sit close to the television to enable them to see more clearly. This condition can be diagnosed by an ophthalmologist and corrected with glasses.

  • Eating carrots will improve your vision. False

    While carrots are rich in Vitamin A, it is also found in other foods. Only a small amount of Vitamin A is required for vision. A well-balanced diet will provide all nutrients necessary for good vision.

  • People with weak eyes should avoid reading fine print. False

    Reading fine print by those who have weak eye sight does not damage the eyes at all. Spectacles and contact lenses act as aids in focusing otherwise blurred images on to the retina. As an analogy, taking pictures with a camera that is out of focus does not damage the camera itself.

  • A Cataract can be removed with a laser. False

    Whilst there are some lasers in development today that aid in removing cataracts, the overwhelming majority of cataracts in the world today are removed by a method known as phacoemulsification which utilises ultrasound energy.

  • A Cataract must be ripe before it is removed. False

    A Cataract need no longer be "ripe" before removal. In fact, with today's advanced technologies, in cataract surgery, it may even be dangerous to let them advance to a stage of "ripeness".

  • Reading in dim light will hurt your eyes.
  • Wearing the wrong kind of glasses hurts your eyes.
  • Using computers will not damage your eyes.
  • Children usually outgrow crossed eyes.
  • Eye trouble is the cause of reading disability (dyslexia).
  • Sitting close to television can be normal.
  • Eating carrots will improve your vision.
  • People with weak eyes should avoid reading fine print.
  • A cataract can be removed with laser.
  • A cataract must be ripe before it is removed.